Category: philosophy of education

Algorythm of Microcycles – Technology for Beginners

Algorithm   of   Microcycles

      In pedagogical practice at the second period  of music education the considerable majority of pupils inevitably spend a lot of time and efforts to master by professional skills of playing music instrument and to perfect different methods of practical activity with music information. In  the process of  integrating the adopted  music information  from sheet a pupil  is confronted with great difficulties in perception  of study material , its synthesis and realization on an  instrument. A heavy study load  is the cause of emerging negative  emotions, lowers  child’s  interest to the music subject, and as a result of  that , the quality of knowledge worsens, the speed and efficiency of music teaching are restricted. It is necessary to find more effective ways and methods on teaching of children, to pay special attention not only to a certain kind of activity, but also to the nature of  formation of each skill separately.

       The pedagogic task at given period of teaching consists in that to give the intensive development to the natural gift of a child, rationally to realize his potential music possibilities  in special  psychosomatic action as a result. Speaking about the main task  in this direction  it is necessary to emphasize application of sequential alteration of  kind of mental activity of pupil.In this connection,and with the aim to distribute the appearing sum study load in child’s mental sphere on separate its components in according to their dynamic and kinetic characteristic features, the new technology of  music teaching  ” Algorithm  of Microcycles ” has been developed. The way of  perception of  music information through the brief episodic cycles is put in the base of this technology. Given methods allows a child to enter into practical lesson actively, to limit  fatigue in time , to master professional skills dynamically  and , as a result , to eliminate the negative attitude to study process.

                       Physiological  Basis

     The insistent necessity of alteration of pupil’s attention is dictated by peculiarities of physiology of the higher nervous  activity, namely  that, if  with appearing of more-less long-term existing  in the central nervous system of  the nidus of stagnant excitation (on extra monotonous mental activity ) , naturally, sings of  fatigue of the nerve cells-neurons are increased in the range of this nidus and work capacity of these neurons is decreased in the view of  lengthening period of remembering and reproducing of any information. If at the first symptoms of  fatigue and reducing of the pupils’ attention, sequentially to alter their attention to other kind of work, the stagnant excitation gradually  subsides, as other nervous centre of  brain  is excited already. The methods ” Algorithm of  Microcycles ”  consists of  five short episodic elements. The kind of   activity in each algorithm is solitary and distinctive from the next one in its nature of activity,thus applying step ( cyclic ) alteration of pupil’s attention , the capability of  the nervous centers to improve their physiological lability is increased and, as a result, motion of the following excitable …

Should I Become a Clinical Psychologist?

What is Clinical Psychology?

Clinical Psychology combines theory, science and practice. As a clinical psychologist, you would deal with the cause, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of those with psychological problems. These problems can very greatly in severity and seriousness, from disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and substance abuse to problems related to stress, career planning and family.

If you don’t like school – it may be time to consider another career. Job opportunities are limited for those with a bachelor’s clinical psychology degree. If you want to work in your own private practice, then you will need to become licensed. This is done to ensure “quality” that is equivalent across clinical practitioners.

A doctorate degree is usually required for independent practice as a clinical psychologist as well as many other career options such as academic and research. A master’s degree will allow you sufficient choice in careers, but it will also limit you in career advancement. A master’s clinical psychology degree program requires 2 years of full time study and it may be best if you think about it as allows you to start off your career and ease into a doctoral degree program.

Where do Clinical Psychologist Work?

With a clinical psychology degree you could work in a:

  • private practice
  • school or college
  • hospital
  • physical rehabilitation centers
  • mental health facilitates

Careers with a Clinical Psychology Degree

With a clinical psychology degree you could choose among a vast number of careers. You could focus:

Research – focus on assessment and testing of therapies, drug treatments or patient interventions.

Counseling – advise individuals in group or family settings or conduct one to one meetings with patients. This type of career is perfect if you like giving advice and helping people.

Faculty – you could decide to share your knowledge with other aspiring clinical psychologist and become a member of the faculty team. In this role you would train students in providing mental health services to a wide range of clients.

According to the US Department of Labor, jobs for psychologists are expected to grow 15% from 2006-2016. This is faster than average for all other occupations. Given the raise in health care costs, prevention and treatment have become more critical. According to the same source, median annual earnings for clinical psychologist were $59,440 (data from May 2006).…

Benefits of Music Education

Three Powerful Reasons why children benefit from music education as part of their Curriculum, especially at a young age. There has been plenty of research done about the benefits of music education for young children.

1. Playing music improves concentration, memory and self-expression

One two-year study in Switzerland run with 1200 children in more than 50 classes scientifically showed how playing music improved children’s reading and verbal skills through improving concentration, memory and self-expression.(1) Younger children who had three more music classes per week and three fewer main curriculums made rapid developments in speech and learned to read with greater ease.

Other effects revealed by the study showed that children learned to like each other more, enjoyed school more (as did their teachers) and were less stressed during the various tests, indicating they were better able to handle performance pressure.

2. Playing music improves the ability to think

Ongoing research at the University of California-Irvine and the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh (2) demonstrate that learning and playing music builds or modifies Neural pathways related to spatial reasoning tasks, which are crucial for higher brain functions like complex maths, chess and science.

The first studies showed that listening to a Mozart sonata temporarily improved a child’s spatial abilities. Further studies compared children who had computer lessons, children who had singing lessons, children who learned music using a Keyboard and children who did nothing additional. The children who had had the Music classes scored significantly higher – up to 35% higher – than the children did Who had computer classes or did nothing additional.(3)

3. Learning music helps under-performing students to improve

Researchers at Brown University in the US (4) discovered that children aged 5-7 years who had been lagging behind in their school performance had caught up with their peers in reading and were ahead of them in math’s after seven months of music lessons. The children’s classroom attitudes and behavior ratings had also Significantly improved, and after a year of music classes were rated as better than the children who had had no additional classes.

1. E W Weber, M Spychiger and J-L Patry, Musik macht Schule. Biografie und Ergebnisse eines Schulversuchs mit erweitertemMusikuntericcht. Padagogik in der Blauen Eule, Bd17. 1993.

2. Various studies by Dr. Gordon Shaw (University of California-Irvine) and Dr. Fran Rauscher (University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh), with others.Including those published in Nature 365:611 and Neuroscience Letters 185:44-47

3. E L Wright, W R Dennis & R L Newcomb. Neurological Res.19:2-8. 1997

4. M F Gardiner, A Fox, F Knowles & D Jeffrey. Learning improved by arts training. Nature 381:284. 1996.…

Top Career Web Sites for Children and Teens

Career assessments and tests help you explore who you. Career books and web sites give you a glimpse of the world of work. Free career information is available on web sites. Some writers have written facts for children and teens. We would like to share some information with you. These web sites use graphics, multimedia presentation, activities, and other techniques to expand our knowledge of careers. We have written information on seventeen (17) web sites. Here are the four different types of exploring careers web sites:

Curriculum
General Career Information
Science Career Clusters
Specific Science Careers

Curriculum Web Sites

Curriculum web sites provide activities, tests, guidelines, as well as career information.

Resource One: Career Cruiser
Source: Florida Department of Education

The Career Cruiser is a career exploration guidebook for middle school students. The Career Cruiser has self assessment activities to match personal interests to careers. The Career Cruiser has information on Holland Codes. Careers are grouped into 16 career clusters. The Career Cruiser has information on occupational descriptions, average earnings, and minimum educational level required for the job.

Teacher’s Guide is also available.

Resource Two: Elementary Core Career Connection
Source: Utah State Office of Education

The Core Career Connections is a collection of instructional activities, K to 6, and 7 to 8, designed by teachers, counselors, and parents. Each grade level has instructional activities that align directly with the Utah State Core. This instructional resource provides a framework for teachers, counselors, and parents to integrate career awareness with the elementary and middle level grade students.

Career Information Web Sites

Some web sites provide excellent career information. Some web sites list facts about job tasks, wages, career outlook, interests, education, and more.

Resource Three: Career Voyages
Source: U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Education

The Career Voyages web site is a Career Exploration web site for Elementary School students. The Career Voyages web site has information about the following industries:

Advanced Manufacturing
Automotive
Construction
Energy
Financial Services
Health Care
Hospitality
Information Technology
Retail
Transportation
Aerospace and the “BioGeoNano” Technologies

Resource Four: Career Ship
Source: New York State Department of Labor

Career Ship is a free online career exploration tool for middle and high school students.
Career Ship uses Holland Codes and the O*NET Career Exploration Tools. For each career, Career Ship provides the following information:

Tasks
Wages
Career outlook
Interests
Education
Knowledge
Skills
Similar careers

Career Ship is a product of Mapping Your Future, a public service web site providing career, college, financial aid, and financial literacy information and services.

RESOURCE FIVE: Career Zone
Source: New York State Department of Labor

Career Zone is a career exploration and planning system. Career Zone has an assessment activity that identifies Holland Codes. Career Zone provides information on 900 careers from the new O*NET Database, the latest labor market information from the NYS Department of Labor and interactive career portfolios for middle and high school students that connect to the NYS Education Department Career Plan initiative. Career Zone has links to …

Teaching models

                                                        TEACHING MODELS

Dr. N.V.S.Suryanarayana

Teaching is often thought of as something that comes rather naturally to people who know their subject.  In general, it is thought that it is a simple process that produces simple outcomes.1 But teaching is an intriguing, important and complex process.2 It takes place in a complicated social institution, which is filled with diverse people.  It is a fluid interplay of events.  One can just know the subject and teach it, because the subjects themselves are ever changing.  It is true that teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including sets of values and beliefs which in turn color their view of reality.3  The teacher must learn to control five processes of teaching; firstly, making and using knowledge, secondly, shaping the school, thirdly, teaching with strategy, fourthly, creating interpersonal climates and fifth and lastly controlling a teaching personality.4  Bruner also emphasized four major features of theory of instruction in effective teaching (i) predisposition toward learning, (ii) structured body of knowledge, (iii) sequences of material to be learnt, and (iv) the nature and pacing of reward and punishment.5  It means that a theory of instruction in teaching is concerned with how what one wishes to teach can best learnt, with improving rather than describing learning.

Research on Teaching

            Research on teaching styles demonstrate vigorous changes during the past decade.  As with any developing field all stages of the movement are visible simultaneously, but there appears to be a clearly discernible pattern to the development.

Phase I Validation of Theoretically Derived Teaching Construct

            In the first phase during the 1960s and early 1970s, a flurry of studies attempted the validation of theoretically derived teaching construct, usually dichotomous variables that carried on implicit, if not explicit, value preference.  Several instrumentation break through (Medley and Mitzel 1958,6  Flanders 1960) allowed the dominative versus integrative construct of Anderson (1939)7 and the teacher centered versus learner centered notion of Withall (1949)8 to be examined in classrooms.  The research for the most effective teaching style was pursued with much excitement during this period.

Phase II Specific Behaviour of Pupils

            The next phase focused on specific behaviours that are related to learning outcomes of pupils rather than on global teaching styles.  This phase continues actively today as specific teacher  variables are tested in various settings to determine the utility.

Phase III Research-Based Teaching Pattern

            A third critical, bur rather rudimentary, phase has just begun to emerge from the research base.  The development of research derived teaching patterns or styles has started to occur, at least for children of a particular age in particular settings.  Only a few patterns have been identified, but the ones that have emerged are firmly rooted in empirical research rather than derived from theory.  Within this phase, there is an attempt to develop generic patterns or styles that have broad utility as well as the possibility of synthesizing specific patterns effective for particular Children in specific settings.

            The research on teacher effectiveness has been …

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