Category: philosophy of education

Top Career Web Sites for Children and Teens

Career assessments and tests help you explore who you. Career books and web sites give you a glimpse of the world of work. Free career information is available on web sites. Some writers have written facts for children and teens. We would like to share some information with you. These web sites use graphics, multimedia presentation, activities, and other techniques to expand our knowledge of careers. We have written information on seventeen (17) web sites. Here are the four different types of exploring careers web sites:

General Career Information
Science Career Clusters
Specific Science Careers

Curriculum Web Sites

Curriculum web sites provide activities, tests, guidelines, as well as career information.

Resource One: Career Cruiser
Source: Florida Department of Education

The Career Cruiser is a career exploration guidebook for middle school students. The Career Cruiser has self assessment activities to match personal interests to careers. The Career Cruiser has information on Holland Codes. Careers are grouped into 16 career clusters. The Career Cruiser has information on occupational descriptions, average earnings, and minimum educational level required for the job.

Teacher’s Guide is also available.

Resource Two: Elementary Core Career Connection
Source: Utah State Office of Education

The Core Career Connections is a collection of instructional activities, K to 6, and 7 to 8, designed by teachers, counselors, and parents. Each grade level has instructional activities that align directly with the Utah State Core. This instructional resource provides a framework for teachers, counselors, and parents to integrate career awareness with the elementary and middle level grade students.

Career Information Web Sites

Some web sites provide excellent career information. Some web sites list facts about job tasks, wages, career outlook, interests, education, and more.

Resource Three: Career Voyages
Source: U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Education

The Career Voyages web site is a Career Exploration web site for Elementary School students. The Career Voyages web site has information about the following industries:

Advanced Manufacturing
Financial Services
Health Care
Information Technology
Aerospace and the “BioGeoNano” Technologies

Resource Four: Career Ship
Source: New York State Department of Labor

Career Ship is a free online career exploration tool for middle and high school students.
Career Ship uses Holland Codes and the O*NET Career Exploration Tools. For each career, Career Ship provides the following information:

Career outlook
Similar careers

Career Ship is a product of Mapping Your Future, a public service web site providing career, college, financial aid, and financial literacy information and services.

Source: New York State Department of Labor

Career Zone is a career exploration and planning system. Career Zone has an assessment activity that identifies Holland Codes. Career Zone provides information on 900 careers from the new O*NET Database, the latest labor market information from the NYS Department of Labor and interactive career portfolios for middle and high school students that connect to the NYS Education Department Career Plan initiative. Career Zone has links to …

Teaching models

                                                        TEACHING MODELS

Dr. N.V.S.Suryanarayana

Teaching is often thought of as something that comes rather naturally to people who know their subject.  In general, it is thought that it is a simple process that produces simple outcomes.1 But teaching is an intriguing, important and complex process.2 It takes place in a complicated social institution, which is filled with diverse people.  It is a fluid interplay of events.  One can just know the subject and teach it, because the subjects themselves are ever changing.  It is true that teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including sets of values and beliefs which in turn color their view of reality.3  The teacher must learn to control five processes of teaching; firstly, making and using knowledge, secondly, shaping the school, thirdly, teaching with strategy, fourthly, creating interpersonal climates and fifth and lastly controlling a teaching personality.4  Bruner also emphasized four major features of theory of instruction in effective teaching (i) predisposition toward learning, (ii) structured body of knowledge, (iii) sequences of material to be learnt, and (iv) the nature and pacing of reward and punishment.5  It means that a theory of instruction in teaching is concerned with how what one wishes to teach can best learnt, with improving rather than describing learning.

Research on Teaching

            Research on teaching styles demonstrate vigorous changes during the past decade.  As with any developing field all stages of the movement are visible simultaneously, but there appears to be a clearly discernible pattern to the development.

Phase I Validation of Theoretically Derived Teaching Construct

            In the first phase during the 1960s and early 1970s, a flurry of studies attempted the validation of theoretically derived teaching construct, usually dichotomous variables that carried on implicit, if not explicit, value preference.  Several instrumentation break through (Medley and Mitzel 1958,6  Flanders 1960) allowed the dominative versus integrative construct of Anderson (1939)7 and the teacher centered versus learner centered notion of Withall (1949)8 to be examined in classrooms.  The research for the most effective teaching style was pursued with much excitement during this period.

Phase II Specific Behaviour of Pupils

            The next phase focused on specific behaviours that are related to learning outcomes of pupils rather than on global teaching styles.  This phase continues actively today as specific teacher  variables are tested in various settings to determine the utility.

Phase III Research-Based Teaching Pattern

            A third critical, bur rather rudimentary, phase has just begun to emerge from the research base.  The development of research derived teaching patterns or styles has started to occur, at least for children of a particular age in particular settings.  Only a few patterns have been identified, but the ones that have emerged are firmly rooted in empirical research rather than derived from theory.  Within this phase, there is an attempt to develop generic patterns or styles that have broad utility as well as the possibility of synthesizing specific patterns effective for particular Children in specific settings.

            The research on teacher effectiveness has been …



Professional Development as a Concept

                Professional development in education has many facets as evidenced by numerous terms used to refer to the process.  Some call it professional growth, in-service education, on the job training, continuing education, recurrent education, staff improvement or renewal. In this paper the term is used to refer to the process through which teachers attain higher professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career. It is any experience that teachers engage in to widen their knowledge, appreciation, skills, and understanding of their work inline with goals, values of the schools and the interests and needs of teachers (Duke& Stiggins, 1990; Beerens, D.R., 2000; Norton, M. S., 2008).  This definition is premised on the fact that organizations will progress to the extent that people grow and develop. It submits to the idea that teacher development must be linked with the schools strategic plan together with the short and long range work force assets. 

Justification for Professional Development of Teachers

                In the 21st century education is becoming a competitive human enterprise. Like all other investments, people spend money, effort and time in education and expect good returns. This makes education to be rated on the basis of its cost effectiveness.  The outcome calculated in terms of economic, social and at times political gains is what motivates people to invest heavily in education. According to Darling-Hamond (1998) each dollar spent on improving teacher’s qualification nets greater gains in student learning than any other use of an educational dollar. However, these gains are dependant on the quality of the teachers and yet it takes time for one to become an effective teacher. At whatever cost, it is notable that good instruction accrues from the professional development of teachers (Glickman, C.D., et al 2004; O’Donnell, Reeve& Smith., 2009).

                Unfortunately, there is little knowledge and understanding about the kinds of the programs which work best, their optimal organization , content and what needs to be done in specific circumstances. Developers do not usually conceptualize the methodological underpinnings of professional program development or its paradigm. Even though administrators, teachers and supervisors usually go through staff development period with a mere endurance of attitude not hoping to gain much from it, a number of teachers are beginning to report potential gains from the programs . Management consultants have also indicated that the largest single factor to job satisfaction is the opportunity for growth and career development (English, F.W., 2004; Bathurst, P.2007; Preez, du P & Roux, C. 2008).

                Teachers also indicate that they need continuous up grading in all the activities they engage in their services as teachers (Allan, P., 1983). Since they play a major role in curriculum development process, their competence needs appraisal to match with a wide array of curriculum demands. With influx of knowledge, education has become an ever growing field that calls for retraining of teachers if they are to cope with the latest …

Looking At Pursuing A Career In Psychology?

Think of major subject of study that is only 125 years young and is taking the world by storm! This is how one can probably describe psychology. Psychology is a subject of study that shouldn’t be taken lightly. Psychology is a science that deals with human behavior as well as non humans – animals. Its study finds its roots in biology and touches on many areas in sociology, trying to seek a relationship between the brain functions and the behavior or the relationship between the environment and the behavior generators. There are many areas in which one can specialize since the subject is so vast and nowadays, more and more areas of life need the application of psychology.

The importance of the psychology and why one is secure by building a career in the subject can be seen from the fact that since 1960, there has been a big increase in the students who pursue psychology and have become a part of the competition on jobs that are psychology related. To be precise, the number of students opting for a masters in psychology has gone up 6 folds, a trend that was not observed earlier. It has also been observed that more than two thirds of the students graduating with masters in psychology get jobs in fields which are outside psychology and only about a third are employed in jobs which are directly related to psychology. A large number of those employed after graduating with masters in psychology work on data collection and analysis in various firms and institutions, both in the government circles and the private sector.

When we look at the trend of job projections and growth the area of psychology, there has been a great percentage increase in demand for people with psychology degrees. According to a survey conducted in 2001 by APA Center for Psychology Workforce Analysis and Research (CPWAR), 73% of the people who graduated with degrees in psychology were able to be employed in the areas they first chose to work in, and 75% were able to get jobs within 3 months of graduation. The trend has gone up since then and there are many more areas where psychology gradates are much needed. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for psychology-based jobs will keep on increasing at a high rate in the next decade.

One can build a career in the subfields of psychology. For example, one can take on Evolutionary psychology where you can study how human thought, feeling, and behavior are affected by evolutionary aspects like mutation, selective fitness and adaptation. You can also study Clinical Psychology where to will get knowledge to be able to deal with emotional and behavioral disorders. You can also go for Cognitive and perceptual psychology, Developmental psychology, Educational psychology and many other subfields.…

Pursuing A Masters In Psychology

The importance of psychology in life cannot be taken for granted. Psychology is the science that deals with human behavior as well as that of the non human. Though the course is only 125 years old, it is needed in almost in all spheres of life. Its study has its roots in biology to sociology, trying to seek a relationship between the brain functions and the behavior or the relationship between the environment and the behavior. Since the subject is so vast, there is therefore a need for specialization. As mentioned earlier, psychology touches many aspects of life and so there are various fields of study. These fields are studied in detail at the masters level.

Since 1960, there has been an increase in the students who pursue a masters in psychology. There is competition for jobs which are psychology related and so more and more students are joining the courses. In fact, it has been observed that more than two thirds of the students graduating with a masters in psychology get jobs on field, which are outside psychology and only about one third are employed in jobs which are directly related to psychology. A large number of those employed after graduating with a masters in psychology work on data collection and analysis in various firms and institutions, both in the government circles and the private sector.

There are various subfields of psychology where one can specialize. For example, one can study masters to be a Clinical Psychologist. Here one can deal with emotional and behavioral disorders. There is also Cognitive and perceptual psychologists who study human perception, thinking, and memory and often work closely with behavioral neuroscientists to explain clearly the bases of perception or cognition from the biological perspective. One can also study to be Developmental psychologists to be able to solve issues dealing with the psychological development in people throughout their lives. Educational psychology is another field which is quite popular today. Here you learn how to enhance teaching and learning.

Other areas one can do a master include Engineering psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Experimental psychology, Forensic psychology, which tries to solve legal issues by applying psychological principles and Health psychology which is a study of how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness. There is also industrial & organizational psychology where one can learn how to improve productivity in areas of work by employing psychological principles and research methods. There are many other areas too.

There are many universities in the USA which offer masters in psychology and one can opt for the course within the preferred specialization. The course normally takes two years. One should be a graduate holding a bachelors degree with a related subject. Some universities may enroll any student from any faculty but it’s always advisable to take a masters in psychology if you have a related bachelor’s degree.…

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